torsdag 19 maj 2016

Spiral Galaxy Formation in Extended Newtonian Gravitation

1. Cosmological Model

This is a continuation of previous posts on dark matter and The Universe as Weakly Compressible Gas subject to Pressure and Gravitational Forces, which post we recall:

We consider a cosmological model in the form of Euler's equations for a compressible gas subject to Newtonian gravitation: Find $(\rho ,m, e ,\phi ,p)$ depending on a Euclidean space coordinate $x$ and time $t$, such that for all $(x,t)$:
• $\dot\rho + \nabla\cdot (\rho u ) =0$       (or $\frac{D\rho}{Dt} = -\rho\nabla\cdot u$)
• $\dot m +\nabla\cdot (mu) +\nabla p + \rho\nabla\phi =0$
• $\dot e +\nabla\cdot (eu) +p\nabla\cdot u +\rho\nabla\cdot m=0$,
where $\rho$ is mass density, $u=\frac{m}{\rho}$ is matter velocity, $p$ is pressure, $\phi$ is gravitational potential, and $e$ is internal energy as the sum of heat energy $\rho T$ with $T$ temperature and gravitational energy $\rho\phi$and the dot indicates time differentiation and
• $\frac{D\rho}{Dt}=\dot\rho +u\cdot\nabla\rho$
is the convective time derivative of $\rho$, see Many-Minds Relativity 20.3 and Computational Thermodynamics Chap 32.

These equations express conservation of mass $\rho$, conservation of momentum $m$ with $\nabla p$ pressure force and $-\nabla\phi$ gravitational force, and conservation of internal energy $e$. These laws of conservation are complemented with constitutive laws connection $p$ and $\phi$ to density, of the following form:

A1: Weakly compressible gas ($\delta$ small positive constant):
• $\Delta p =\frac{\nabla\cdot u}{\delta}= - \frac{1}{\delta\rho}\frac{D\rho}{Dt}$
or

A2: Compressible perfect gas ($0 < \gamma < 1$):
• $p=\gamma \rho T$.
B: Newton's law of gravitation:
• $\Delta\phi =\rho$ with $\phi =0$ at infinity.
We observe
1. Similarity of $\nabla p$ and $\nabla\phi$ in momentum equation.
2. Similarity between A1 and B connecting $\Delta p$ to $-\frac{D\rho}{Dt}$ (or $-\rho$) and $\Delta\phi$ to $\rho$.
3. $p \ge 0$ and $\phi \le 0$.
Here 1. can be seen as the Equivalence Principle (equality of heavy and inertial mass) expressing that there is no difference between gravitational and other forces (pressure) in Newton's 2nd law expressing conservation of momentum.

Further, 2. expresses that the constitutive laws A1 and B both can be viewed as action at distance if $\rho$ is viewed as the cause, but represent local action of differentiation if $\rho$ is viewed as the effect.

For a weakly compressible gas described by A1, there is no need per se to identify a cause-effect relation between $p$ and $\rho$; it is enough to say that $p$ and $\rho$ are connected in a certain way expressing a form of "perfect harmony".

In the same way, there is no need per se to identify a cause-effect relation between $\phi$ and $\rho$; it is enough to say that $\phi$ and $\rho$ are connected in certain way expressing a form of  "perfect harmony" in the spirit of Leibniz.

The relation $\Delta\phi =\rho$ is explored in Newtonian Matter and Antimatter with $\Delta\phi > 0$ identifying matter and $\Delta\phi < 0$ antimatter, with dark matter where $\Delta\phi$ is smooth and visible matter where $\Delta\phi$ is singular, typically as a sum of multiples of delta functions representing matter in point form.  We refer to such a model as Extended Newtonian Gravitation.

2. Galaxy Formation

We start from a spherical distribution of matter of low density of dark matter (a halo) with $\Delta\phi$ a smooth function, which we assume to be in static equilibrium with the the gravitational force balanced by a weak pressure force with $\nabla p = - \rho\nabla\phi$.

Starting from this halo of low density dark matter, we assume that some visible matter (stars) is formed by concentration of dark matter by gravitational attraction into point masses with $\rho$ becoming large locally with the result that the gravitational force $\rho\nabla\phi$ can no longer be balanced by a weak pressure force $-\nabla p$. This is an effect of the different action of pressure and gravitational force, with pressure scaling with surface and gravitational force with volume.

The combined effect of the presence of a halo of dark matter and gravitational collapse of visible matter as a system of point masses, may then create a spiral galaxy of visible matter surrounded by a halo of dark matter, which is the standard view of the nature of a spiral galaxy, with in particular a characteristic distribution of velocity of visible matter as roughly independent of the distance to the galaxy center as an effect of the dark matter halo.

It thus appears that an extended Newtonian model with $\Delta\phi$ of variable sign and concentration may be sufficient to explain essential aspects of galaxy formation, for which Einstein's equation equation is useless.