The free open university of Wilhelm von Humboldt of the 19th century, originating from the Enlightenment leading into the liberal arts education of our time, was in the second half of the 20th century replaced by the non-free closed university with the students locked into fixed educational programs characterized by ownership and control:
- universities own and control educational programs
- educational programs own and control courses, teachers and students
- teachers own and control students in classrooms through text books
- texts books own and control student minds by exercises and problems preparing for exam.