*no-slip*boundary condition prescribing zero relative fluid velocity on a solid wall, as the corner-stone of Prandtl's boundary layer theory dominating modern fluid dynamics.

DNS is restricted to Reynolds number well below drag crisis at around $5\times 10^5$, because computational resolution of thin boundary layers is required.

RANS-LES uses a wall model prescribing the transition from zero relative velocity on a wall to free stream velocity.

Reynolds numbers for vehicle fluid dynamics of cars, airplanes and boats lie in the range $10^6 -10^9$ beyond the drag crisis.

DFS is a new method for flows beyond the drag crisis based on best possible solution of Euler's equations with a

*slip*boundary condition as a force boundary condition expressing vanishing skin friction without boundary layer.

The drag crisis appears to represent a switch from a no-slip to effectively a slip boundary condition. In CFD with Reynolds numbers in the range $10^6-10^9$ of relevance for vehicles, it thus appears to be possible use a slip boundary condition which does not generate a boundary layer. The evidence is DFS with slip for a wide range of vehicle fluid dynamics in close agreement with observations.

DFS can be viewed as a form of DNS which works for high Reynolds numbers beyond the drag crisis, works because then the fluid effectively satisfies a slip boundary condition.

In particular DFS has shown to correctly predict the critical element of

*flow separation*from a solid wall as

*3d rotational slip separation.*

*On the other hand, in RANS-LES the flow velocity is prescribed close to the wall and thus also flow separation (or non-separation) is prescribed and prescription is not prediction.*

DNS with no-slip as being restricted to low Reynolds numbers, cannot predict flow separation beyond the drag crisis and and so separates on the crest of a wing and not at the trailing edge required for generation of lift (before stall).

In short, DFS represents a major advancement in CFD by allowing prediction of flow separation through the use of a force boundary condition expressing observed vanishingly small skin friction

allowing the simulation to "follow the physics", in contrast to RANS-LES where instead the simulation "prescribes/dictates the physics". The difference is huge.

In fluid dynamics according to Prandtl, flow separation is connected to the presence of an "adverse pressure gradient" retarding 2d flow to stagnation followed by separation as a 2d phenomenon. Accordingly flow separation in RANS-LES is prescribed by "adverse pressure gradients", which however not physics. True flow separation is a 3d phenomenon which is captured in DFS.