- $\dot K+\dot P = W-D$
- $\dot E = -W + D$,
- Isothermal atmosphere with zero lapse rate: $D$ maximal with $W=D$.
- Maximal (dry adiabatic) lapse rate $=9.8\, C/km$ with $D=0$ minimal.
- Lapse rate may increase by slow laminar vertical circulation with ascending air cooling and descending air warming with $D=0$.
- Lapse rate may decrease by turbulent dissipation $D>0$ heating upper layers.
- A (partially) transparent atmosphere (like on Earth) heated from below may naturally develop a positive lapse rate by 1.
- An opaque atmosphere (like on Venus) heated from above may become isothermal by heat conduction and may then develop a positive lapse rate by 1.
Compare with the previous post Lapse Rate by Gravitation: Loschmidt or Boltzmann/Maxwell?