Potential flow around circular cylinder with zero drag and lift (left).
Real flow with non-stationary turbulent 3d rotational slip separation and non-zero drag (right).
The New Theory of Flight published in J Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, can put be into the following time line:
1750 formulation by Euler of the Euler equations describing incompressible flow with vanishing viscosity expressing Newton's 2nd law and incompressibility in Euler coordinates of a fixed Euclidean coordinate system.
1752 d'Alembert's Paradox as zero drag and lift of potential flow around a wing defined as stationary flow which is
- of vanishing viscosity
- satisfies slip boundary condition
1904 resolution of d'Alembert's paradox of zero drag by Prandtl stating that potential flow is unphysical, because 4. violates a requirement that real flow must satisfy
- no slip boundary condition.
- rotational flow.
- potential flow it is unstable at separation and develops into non-stationary turbulent 3d rotational slip separation as a viscosity solution of the Euler equations with substantial drag and lift.
1946 Nobel Laureate Hinshelwood made the following devastating analysis:
- D’Alembert’s paradox separated fluid mechanics from its start into theoretical fluid mechanics explaining phenomena which cannot be observed and practical fluid mechanics or hydraulics observing phenomena which cannot be explained.
The 2008 resolution of d'Alembert's Paradox leading into the New Theory of Flight by Hoffman-Johnson, has been met with complete silence/full oppression by the fluid mechanics community still operating under the paradigm of Hinshelwoods analysis.