måndag 4 mars 2013

Modtran: One Fly Lifting 20 Kilo

CO2 global warming alarmism is based on a prediction of "radiative forcing" of 3.7 W/m2 upon doubling of CO2 concentration from preindustrial level of 300 ppm to 600 ppm, obtained by the radiative transfer model Modtran available online.

Here is the "back radiation" or downwelling long wave radiation DLR from the atmosphere to the Earth surface predicted by Modtran looking up from the ground through a standard atmosphere with water vapor scale = 0 combined with 1 ppm CO2 (top) compared with 0 ppm CO2 (bottom):

We see a "radiative forcing" effect on the ground of 11 W/m2 by increasing the CO2 concentration from 0 ppm to 1 ppm represented by the peak in the radiation spectrum around the main resonance at wave number 667 in the top graph.

With water vapor scale = 1 (%), we see a corresponding increase of the "back radiation" or DLR from 226.5 to 231.7 W/m2, with in this case a "radiative forcing" of 5 W/m2 from just 1 ppm of CO2.

Modtran thus assigns 1 ppm of CO2 an effect of "radiative forcing" of 5 - 10 W/m2, as a result of considerable broadening of the line spectrum at 667, visible as the peak in the upper graph.

This is another view of the drop in outgoing longwave radiation OLR noted in a previous post of 6 W/m2 by changing CO2 from 0 to 1 ppm.

Modtran assigns 0.0001% of CO2 a warming effect of 5 - 10 W/m2? Is this reasonable? Can we believe in what seems so utterly unreasonable?

Is it really possible that 0.0001% of CO2 can give a fully transparent atmosphere of O2/N2 molecules an absorptivity/emissivity > 2%, with thus an amplification factor of 20.000 from 0.0001% to 2%?? Is it possible that a 1 g fly can lift 20 kg? Try Modtran yourself to find an answer.

If it is not possible, then CO2 alarmism rests on an impossibility.

PS1 Here is the input to Modtran from Hitran for the main resonance at wave number 667:

Notice the sparsity of the radiation spectrum (per CO2 molecule) away from an interval around wave number 667 of width 2 - 3, from which Modtran evidently is able to make a big deal.

We have now traced the proclaimed scientific evidence of CO2 global warming to the interplay between Hitran and Modtran, which may help to focus the discussion. Remember that the "radiative forcing" of 3.7 W/m2 from doubling of CO2 produced by Modtran, is the key scientific evidence of  CO2 global warming alarmism. Maybe the time has now come to seriously judge its validity.

PS2 Here is a Spectral Calc computation of transmittance of 1 ppm of CO2 over 1000 m (top) and 10000 m (bottom) at 0.5 bar total pressure:

We see absolute transparency for 1000 m except in the interval around 667 - 669 and a slight reduction of the transmittance by increasing the thickness from 1000 m to 10000 m. We see that Spectral Calc attributes an increase of atmospheric absorptivity of about 1% from the shoulders of 667 - 669 from  10000 m of 1 ppm of CO2 at 0.5 bar total pressure. This is 3 times smaller than the result by Modtran predicting a warming effect of 5 - 10 W/m2 for 10000 m of 1 ppm  CO2, which is not present for only 1000 m. A very subtle phenomenon indeed.

We understand that Modtran aims at capturing a needle in a haystack and as a model with limited accuracy has to choose between taking the whole haystack along with the needle or missing the needle completely.

PS3 Swedish archaeologist Johan Norberg remarks that
  • the Swedish idiomatic expression “att göra en höna av en fjäder” translates as “to create/make a hen out of a feather". It basically means to make up facts about something we know very little of, to blow things out of proportions.
CO2 alarmism is an example out blowing things out of proportion with a thousandfold blow-up.  

PS4 The above Hitran spectrum is the input to Modtran, which adds (pressure) line-broadening to produce the Modtran spectrum. It is natural to ask if all the spectral lines on the shoulders away from 667 will be fully activated in broadened form by IR radiation from the Earth surface. The spectral lines represent possible resonances rather than actual resonances and the net effect after passage through the entire thickness of the atmosphere, may well be impossible to assess by computation. Since experimental verification of such a subtle phenomenon also seems impossible, what remains is Modtran model prediction which cannot be assessed experimentally and thus cannot be counted as science.  Yet this serves as the basis of CO2 alarmism with the 3.7 W/m2 of "radiative forcing" from doubling as the key number. But the number 0.37 W/m2 is much more plausible and with this number there can be no CO2 alarmism.

PS5 Note the recent guest post on WUWT on Categorical Thinking as thinking without quantity, which says that since CO2 is a greenhouse gas, even if drowned by H2O, then CO2 will have a warming effect, even if this effect is so small that it can never be measured, and thus humanity must reduce its emissions to the atmosphere by drastic means, even if the the effect of the reduction can never be observed.  This is not scientific mathematical thinking which is all about quantity.  

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