tisdag 3 mars 2020

Drag Crisis and Slip at Reynolds Number 1 million

This is a continuation of the previous post identifying three types of contact between a fluid and a fixed smooth solid wall:
  1. laminar slip/small skin friction
  2. laminar no-slip 
  3. turbulent no-slip
where DFS Direct Finite Element Simulation uses 1 while standard CFD uses 2 and 3. 

No-slip forms a thin boundary layer connecting fluid with zero velocity on the wall with free flow velocity away from the wall. Slip allows fluid particles to glide along a smooth solid wall without boundary layer at small skin friction.

Standard CFD uses no-slip with thin boundary layers beyond direct computational resolution thus requiring wall models for turbulent flow, which have shown to be elusive. Standard CFD therefore is not truly predictive and thus not very useful. 

DFS uses slip/small friction as an effective boundary condition, which does not form a boundary layer. This makes DFS computable, with true predictive capability demonstrated. 

The appearance of slip/small friction connects to the so called drag crisis observed to occur in slightly viscous bluff body flow with drag drastically dropping at a Reynolds number $Re\equiv\frac{UL}{\nu}$ of around 1 million (or 500.000), where $U$ is typical flow speed, $L$ typical length scale and $\nu$ kinematic viscosity. With $U=1$ and $L=1$, the drag crisis thus connects to $\nu\approx 10^{-6}$ or $Re =10^6$. 

For Reynolds numbers below drag crisis the effective boundary condition can be viewed to be no-slip, which forces early separation into a large turbulent wake and large drag.  For Reynolds numbers above drag crisis separation is delayed to form a narrow wake with small drag,  which the analysis of DFS shows to connect to the appearance of an effective slip/small friction boundary condition. 

Let us seek to follow this transition, thus starting before drag crisis with a laminar no-slip layer of width $d=\sqrt{\nu}$ and shear $\frac{1}{\sqrt{\nu}}$ with free stream velocity $U=1$, and corresponding Reynolds number based on $L=d$ of size $\frac{1}{\sqrt{\nu}}$.

A laminar no-slip layer is an example of shear flow, which shows to develop into a turbulent no-slip layer for Reynolds numbers of size $10^3$ as described in detail in the book Computational Turbulent Incompressible Flow. This connects to a drag crisis at $\nu =10^{-6}$ with $\sqrt{\nu}=10^{-3}$.

In a first step a laminar no-slip low shear layer thus develops into a turbulent no-slip high shear layer which in a second step can develop into an effective slip/small friction condition as an effect of plastic yield in high shear turbulent flow, with a corresponding maximal shear force of size $\sqrt{\nu}=10^{-3}$ appearing as small skin friction of size 0.001. 

The transition from laminar no-slip to turbulent no-slip to slip can be followed in the flow over a convex surface which as laminar no-slip flow separates, because the pressure gradient normal to the boundary is small in a laminar shear layer,  and so develops into a turbulent no-slip layer which can reattach by effectively forming a slip layer with pressure gradient preventing separation.  

Summary: Drag crisis connected to slip occurring at a macroscopic Reynolds number of about $10^6$ with a shear of $1000$ and corresponding skin friction $0.001$, can thus be connected to 
  • transition from laminar no-slip at $Re =10^6$ to turbulent no-slip with shear exceeding $10^3$,
  • transition from turbulent high shear with layer to effective slip skin friction $0.001$ as an effect of visco-plastic flow.  


Inga kommentarer:

Skicka en kommentar