tisdag 19 februari 2019

Banach and DFS and Clay Navier-Stokes Problem

This is an exercise in preparation for participation in a film about the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach who advanced functional analysis as mathematics describing relations between functions or analogies between analogies. My punch line is that the finite element method, as the subject of my work, is (nothing but) computational functional analysis following the spirit of Banach.

The crown of my work, together with Johan Hoffman and Johan Jansson, is Direct Finite Element Simulation DFS as solution of the Navier-Stokes-Euler equations without turbulence model or complicated wall model from a principle of best possible solution, in a situation where there is no exact solution. DFS brings revolutionary new capacity to Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD, which we (as a show case) claim resolves the Clay Navier-Stokes Problem by computation.

Functional analysis was formed by the mathematician Hilbert at the switch to modernity around 1900, with contributions from the Swedish mathematician Fredholm, and was further developed by Banach starting in 1920.  A prime objective was to justify mathematical models in the form of partial differential equations of solid and fluid mechanics and electromagnetics formulated during the 19th century by Laplace, Fourier, Navier, Stokes and Maxwell, by answering basic questions concerning existence and uniqueness of solutions, as well a construction of solutions by computation.

The basic element of functional analysis is a collection of functions named Hilbert space or Banach space equipped with a structure or geometry generalising that of ordinary three dimensional space. The solution of a given partial differential equation is then an element of a suitably chosen Hilbert or Banach space in basic cases determined by a principle of energy minimisation. The differential equation, which is impossible to solve directly by symbolic computation with pen and paper,  is thus reformulated into a minimisation problem over a function space, which allows construction of solutions as a limits of functions with decreasing energy computed according to the Banach Contraction Mapping Theorem.

Starting in the 1950s this form of computational functional analysis has been developed under the name of the finite element method into a universal method for computing solutions of the differential equations of science and engineering bringing revolutionary new capacities.  This success story was darkened only by Navier-Stokes-Euler equations of fluid mechanics, which were believed to demand computational power beyond anything which could be envisioned, the reason being the phenomena of turbulence and thin boundary layers involving small scales too costly to resolve computationally, the impossibilities presented in NASA CFD Vision 2030.

We show that with DFS the NASA CFD Vision 2030 is realised already today. By computational functional analysis in the spirit of Banach.

DFS and functional analysis gives a new perspective on differential equations representing ideal physics, however with uncomputable or non-existing exact solutions as in the case of Navier-Stokes-Euler,  and reformulations in terms of functional analysis with computable approximate solutions representing real physics.

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